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Cite in APA Style: In-Text Citations

A brief guide for the latest edition of APA.

In-text or parenthetical citations

When you are summarizing, paraphrasing or quoting somebody else you must always provide citations. In-text citations will be placed right after the quote or paraphrased passage:


"The federal government is stripping the flesh off of America and feeding the rotting carcass to Goldman Sachs." (Albarelli & Gennari, 2009, p.19).



Type of Citation: Rules and Examples:

In-text citation with one author

The citation is right after the cited quote or paraphrased passage.

The citation is in parenthesis.

The citation includes the last name of the author or authors, the year of publication and the page number where it can be found.

If you have multiple authors (up to 6), you must list all of the authors' names the first time you cite the work. 

The period comes after the closed parenthesis.


In-text citation with more than one author

If there are two authors you must name both of them every time you cite their work.

If there are 3-5 authors you must name all of them the first time you cite the work.  After the first time, you can use the first author's name followed by et al. 


(Ley, et al., 2009)

If there are 6 or more authors, never list all of them for an in-text citation, use the first author followed by et al.


In-text citation with no author listed

If there is no specific author listed but there is an organization, use the organization:


The Steelers are the greatest team in the history of football (Pittsburgh Rules, 2009).


If there is no author or organization, use the first few words in the title:


David Koresh was misunderstood by many (The Real David Koresh, 2010).


In-text citation with no date listed

Use the no date designation, n.d.


Utopian cults in modern day America are really weak compared with the 1970s (Pagoda, et al., n.d.).